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Titolo Noninvasive imaging for assessment of calcification in chronic kidney disease
Autore Cristina Karohl, Luis D\'Marco Gasc�n & Paolo Raggi
Referenza Nature Reviews Nephrology 2011; 7: 567-577

Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease and has a progressive course. Several cardiovascular and uremia-related risk factors, such as abnormalities in mineral metabolism, contribute to the development of vascular calcification, although the pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. The presence and extent of vascular calcification is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. By contrast, patients who do not have calcification seem to have a good prognosis, with minimal or no calcification progression over an extended period of time. A number of noninvasive imaging methods are available to detect vascular calcification and may help clinicians to make therapeutic decisions. Cardiac CT remains the reference standard to detect and quantify coronary artery, aortic and cardiac valve calcification. However, the high cost of equipment, the inability to perform in-office testing and the expertise required limit its use on a routine basis. Other imaging methods, such as planar X-ray, ultrasound and echocardiography, are appropriate alternatives to evaluate vascular and valvular calcification. In this Review, we discuss the noninvasive imaging methods most frequently used to assess vascular and valvular calcification, with their advantages and limitations.

Data 04.04.2012
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