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Titolo Do patients with chronic kidney disease get optimal cardiovascular risk reduction?
Autore Elliott, Mark K.; McCaughan, Jennifer A.; Fogarty, Damian G.
Referenza Current Opinion in Nephrology & Hypertension 2014; 23 (3): 267-274

Purpose of review

Cardiovascular events are the major cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Individuals with CKD have a substantially greater risk of cardiovascular disease compared with the general population but have largely been excluded from clinical trials. This review highlights the complex pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, discusses the evidence for cardiovascular risk reduction and assesses the achievement of cardiovascular treatment targets in CKD.

Recent findings

There is evidence to support both blood pressure and cholesterol reduction in the CKD population. The risk of bleeding with antiplatelet drugs is high in CKD and these should be used with caution. Although there has been recent interest in targeting nonclassical cardiovascular risk factors in CKD, few trials have demonstrated any significant reduction in cardiovascular risk. Smoking cessation remains important but is poorly studied in CKD with many dialysis patients still smoking.


The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in CKD differs subtly from that of non-CKD patients. As renal function declines, the role and impact of treating classical risk factors may change and diminish. However, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and smoking cessation management should be optimized and may require multiple agents and approaches, particularly as CKD advances. Treatment of hypertension would appear to be one management area in which performance is less than ideal. Future work should focus on new management strategies and drug combinations that tackle the classical risk factors as well as better designed longitudinal and randomized control trials of nonclassical risk factors. Patients with CKD should be included in all cardiovascular intervention studies, given their poor outcomes without interventions.

Data 30.04.2014
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